Stem Cells Turned into Blood

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, along with colleagues at three other institutions, report the discovery of two genetic programs responsible for turning stem cells into both the red and white cells that make up human blood. The scientists say their finding is important because it identifies how nature itself makes blood products at the earliest stages of development and provides researchers with the tools to make the cells themselves, investigate how blood cells develop, and produce clinically relevant blood products.

The study (“Direct induction of hemato endothelial programs in human pluripotent stem cells by transcriptional regulators”) was reported in Nature Communications.

Can Facebook make you Sad & depress?

Studies suggest that browsing Facebook can make you unhappy, says Justin Mullins. Why might that be?
Not so long ago a new form of communication swept the world, transforming life in ways unimagined just a few years before. One commentator heralded it as “the greatest means of communication ever developed by the mind of man” while others pointed to its potential to revolutionise news, entertainment and education. But the poet and playwright TS Eliot had a different take. “It is a medium of entertainment which permits millions of people to listen to the same joke at the same time, and yet remain lonesome,” he wrote.

Science of Sleep

We spend a third of our lives doing it. Napoleon, Florence Nightingale and Margaret Thatcher got by on four hours a night. Thomas Edison claimed it was waste of time.

Why do we sleep?
So why do we sleep? This is a question that has baffled scientists for centuries and the answer is, no one is really sure. Some believe that sleep gives the body a chance to recuperate from the day's activities but in reality, the amount of energy saved by sleeping for even eight hours is miniscule - about 50 kCal, the same amount of energy in a piece of toast.

Sleep deprivation can cause schizophrenia like symptoms

Sleep deprivation can cause schizophrenia like symptoms
Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation can lead to conditions similar to the symptoms of schizophrenia in healthy persons, a new study has found. A team led by researchers from the University of Bonn in Germany and King’s College London said that after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in healthy patients, numerous symptoms were noted which are otherwise typically attributed to psychosis or schizophrenia. “It was clear to us that a sleepless night leads to impairment in the ability to concentrate,” said Professor Dr Ulrich Ettinger of the Cognitive 

Medical Trials To Bringing The Dead Back To Life

A radical procedure that involves replacing a patients’ blood with cold salt water could retrieve people from the brink of death, says David Robson.

“When you are at 10C, with no brain activity, no heartbeat, no blood – everyone would agree that you’re dead,” says Peter Rhee at the University of Arizona, Tucson. “But we can still bring you back.”
Rhee isn’t exaggerating. With Samuel Tisherman, at the University of Maryland, College Park, he has shown that it’s possible to keep bodies in ‘suspended animation’ for hours at a time. The procedure, so far tested on animals, is about as radical as any medical procedure comes: it involves draining the body of its blood and cooling it more than 20C below normal body temperature.

New Research Unviels The Cause of Smoking Addiction in Teens

smoking killsNicotine is a chemical compound that is present in cigarettes and tobacco. It’s common knowledge that Nicotine addiction(Cigarettes/tobacco) is bad for your health, but careless young people are still choosing to light up more than any other demographic in the World. Researchers, now have evidence that a specific part of the brain varies between nicotine addicted person and non-nicotine addicted person. The researchers say it could be nicotine causing these changes, even in teenagers who have exposure to nicotine(via cigarette smoking) for a relatively short period of time.

Prior research has shown brain differences between adult smokers and non-smokers, The new discovery indicate that a small part of a brain region called the insula is thinner in young people who smoke.

causes of Cancer
There are about 200 different types of cancer. It can start in any type of body tissue. What affects one body tissue may not affect another. For example, tobacco smoke that you breathe in may help to cause lung cancer. Overexposing your skin to the sun could cause a melanoma on your leg. But the sun won't give you lung cancer and smoking won't give you melanoma.
Apart from infectious diseases, most illnesses (including cancer) are multifactorial. This means that there are many factors involved. In other words, there is no single cause for any one type of cancer.

Flu Medicines Can Increase Spread of the Virus

Got the flu? Think twice before you pop a pill to feel better.
Most over-the-counter flu medications include a fever-reducing ingredient such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. But suppressing fever, according to new research, actually increases the number of seasonal flu cases by at least 5 percent in the U.S., and could cause as many as 1,000 additional deaths from influenza nationally each year.

14 Facts You Don't Know About Stress

How a broken heart can really break your heart, and do you know violent games can ease your stress.
1) Think about money, work, economic outlook, family, and relationships. Feeling anxious? In a 2010 American Psychological Association survey [pdf], those five factors were the most often cited sources of stress for Americans.
2) Stress is strongly tied to cardiac disease, hypertension and inflammatory diseases, but stress can compromised immune systems, and possibly cause Cancer.

Drugs Banned in other Countries But Available in India

Each country has its own list of banned drugs, it is worrisome that some drugs that are banned in other countries for proven adverse effects are still available in the Indian market.  Some of these drugs are available over – the – counter and people may take it without realizing the risk. A note of caution on these drugs could help patients in deciding whether they want to take the drug. Some of these drugs are:

Alzheimer's drugs & their side effects

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, affecting around 496,000 people in the UK. Dementia is a brain diseases that cause long term loss of the ability to think, mood changes and reason clearly that is severe enough to affect a person's daily functioning. These symptoms occur when the brain is damaged by certain diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease, first described by the German neurologist Alois Alzheimer, is a physical disease affecting the brain. During the course of the disease, protein 'plaques' and 'tangles' develop in the structure of the brain, leading to the death of brain cells. People with Alzheimer's also have a shortage of some important chemicals in their brain.

'Bad' cholesterol can increase Metastasis of Cancer

Cancer cellWhen cancer starts to spread to other parts of the body this a process called metastasis. It becomes much more difficult to treat. New research, published in the journal Cell Reports and led by the University of Sydney in Australia identifies "bad" cholesterol helps in metastasis of cancer. Cancer happens when normal cells grow out of control and multiply to form lumps called tumors. If untreated, cancer cells can escape their primary tumors, travel to other parts of the body and grow into secondary cancers or metastases(note: Metastasis & metastases both are different). Metastases are the major cause of death from cancer.

Alien Hand Syndrome (AHS)

Alien hand syndrome, (AHS) is a rare neurological disorder that causes hand movement without the person being aware of what is happening or having control over the action. The afflicted person may sometimes reach for objects and manipulate them without wanting to do so, even to the point of having to use the healthy hand to restrain the alien hand. Patient suffering from AHS feels that one's hand is possessed by a force outside of ones control and feels sensation in the affected hand but thinks that the hand is not part of their body and that they have no control over its movement, that it belongs to an alien. Hence, syndrome is name as Alien hand syndrome.

Imitinef Mercilet: Anti Cancer Drug

Imitinef Mercilet or Imatinib is a drug used treat certain types of cancer. Imatinib works by overcrowding an abnormal enzyme feature of the disease. Imatinib is the first accepted drug to directly turn off the signal of a protein well-known to cause a cancer. Imatinib is swiftly engrossed when given by mouth, as well as is highly bioavailable, 98% of an oral dose reach the bloodstream. Metabolism of imatinib occur in the liver .Though the long-term side effects of imatinib contain not yet been ascertain, research suggests that it is usually very in good health tolerated.

10 Amazing Facts OF Human Brain

Nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 170 miles per hour.
Ever wonder how you can react so fast to things around you or why that stubbed toe hurts right away? It’s due to the super-speedy movement of nerve impulses from your brain to the rest of your body and vice versa, bringing reactions at the speed of a high powered luxury sports car.

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LSD(Lysergic acid diethylamide)

LSD(Lysergic acid diethylamide) is the most potent & strongest hallucinogen ever known to man. small Quantity of LSD(25 microgram or 0.000025 g) is enough to cause hallucinations. LSD was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 from ergotamine, a chemical derived by Arthur Stoll from ergot, agrain fungus that typically grows on rye. It was synthesized by researchers seeking to create new medicine & first developed in lab of switzerland.
Hofmann discovered the psychedelic properties of LSD in 1943. It was introduced commercially in 1947 for various psychiatric uses, and it quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great promise. LSD is very potent, with 20–30 µg (micrograms) being the threshold dose.

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Liquid Crystal State

The study of liquid crystals began in 1888 when an Austrian botanist named Friedrich Reinitzer observed that a material known as cholesteryl benzoate had two distinct melting points. In his experiments, Reinitialize increased the temperature of a solid sample and watched the crystal change into a hazy liquid. As he increased the temperature further, the material changed again into a clear, transparent liquid. Because of this early work, Reinitzer is often credited with discovering a new phase of matter - the liquid crystal phase.
Liquid crystal materials are unique in their properties and uses. As research into this field continues and as new applications are developed, liquid crystals will play an important role in modern technology. This tutorial provides an introduction to the science and applications of these materials.
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Aerosols in pharmaceutical industry

Aerosols are known as pressurized packages, which us liquified propellants. These are convenient and easy to use. Medication is dispensed in a ready-to-use form on pressing a button
Aerosol is defined as a dispersion system that functions on the power of compressed or liquified gas to expel the contents from the container.

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21g is weight of soul in human body: A Scientific Experiment of Dr.MacDougall

On 10th April 1901, Dr. Duncan "om" MacDougall conducted an unusual experiment to prove that humans have soul. According to MacDougall if soul is consider as Matter & it is present in human body then it must have some mass. To calculate mass of soul Dr.MacDougall have to measure weight of human body before & after death.

Introduction to Photochemistry & Photochemical Reactions

Ordinary reactions occur by absorption of heat energy from outside. The reacting molecules are energised and molecular collisions become effective. These bring about the reaction. The reactions which are caused by heat and in absence of light are called thermal or dark reactions. On the other hand, some reactions proceed by absorption of light radiations. These belong to the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (2000 to 8000 Å). The reactant molecules absorbs photons of light and get excited. These excited molecules then produce the reactions. A reaction which takes place by absorption of the visible and ultraviolet radiations is called a photochemical reaction. The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of photochemical reactions is called photochemistry.

Cell Injury and Cellular Adaptations

Cells are the basic units of tissues, which form organs and systems in the human body. Traditionally, body cells are divided in to two main types: epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In health, the cells remain in accord with each other. In 1859, Virchow first published cellular theory of disease, bringing in the concept that diseases occur due to abnormalities at the level of cells. Since then, study of abnormalities in structure and function of cells in disease has remained the focus of attention in understanding of diseases. Thus, most forms of diseases begin with cell injury followed by consequent loss of cellular function. Cell injury is defined as a variety of stresses a cell encounters as a result of changes in its internal and external environment. In general, cells of the body have inbuilt mechanism to deal with changes in environment to an extent.

Nuclear Chemistry

A nuclear reaction is different from a chemical reaction. In a chemical reaction, atoms of the reactants combine by a rearrangement of extranuclear electrons but the nuclei of the atoms remain unchanged. In a nuclear reaction, on the
other hand, it is the nucleus of the atom which is involved. The number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus changes to form a new element. A study of the nuclear changes in atoms is termed Nuclear Chemistry.

Homeostasis of Humanbody

                    Homeostasis is the condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes. Homeostasis is a dynamic
condition. In response to changing conditions, the body’s equilibrium can shift among points in a narrow range that is compatible with maintaining life. For example, the level of glucose in blood normally stays between 70 and 110 milligrams of glucose per 100 milliliters of blood. Each structure, from the cellular level to the systemic level, contributes in some way to keeping the internal environment of the body within normal limits.

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